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Frontbridge’s 88.blacklist.zap

One of my clients complained to me that some of their email wasn’t being delivered. I investigated and discovered that email to them through my server was being bounced. The error message in the maillog was:

Feb 25 10:44:59 server1 postfix/smtp[607]: 852EA400001: to=,[], delay=2, status=bounced (host[] said: 550 Service unavailable; Client host [] blocked using 88.blacklist.zap; Mail From IP Banned To request removal from this list please forward this message to (in reply to RCPT TO command))

Visiting takes you to a page at Frontbridge is apparently Microsoft’s hosted Exchange servers. So I emailed that message to the address given in the bounce message, and got an auto-acknowledgment that they would look into removing my server from the block. This morning I got an email that my IP has been safelisted. But:

As long as this IP address does not continue to send a majority of spam, messages will continue to be allowed to route through our network. If this IP address gets relisted after a period of time, further assessment of this IP would be required and the removal process would be more difficult.

So I emailed and asked what spam they think my server had been sending. The response:

The 88.blacklist.zap is an internal list generated with logs from our spam filtering engines. IP addresses may end up on this list if a certain percentage of the mail received by our network from that IP address is marked as spam by our filters for a given period of time. For example 90 percent of the mail is spam for 15 days. The thresholds are variable and may change as needed to ensure the safety of our network.

When the IP address is listed in the blacklist, all emails coming into our network from that IP address are blocked without going further into our filters.

We do not keep a copy of spam messages in our server. After the IP address has been safelisted, we cannot provide you traces or logs of spams prior to being delisted.

So if I have no idea what messages are triggering their alarms, I can’t fight the problem. I can’t even protest, since I don’t think I’m sending spam. Which probably means I’ll be losing a client if I get blacklisted again by Frontbridge.

Through watching the logs, I think I’ve figured it out. I use Mailman to manage mailing lists. For that client, the list is set to reject any message sent to the list from a non-subscriber. That message though is forwarded to the list-owner. So the 100 spam messages that are sent to that list everyday were being forwarded to my client. Frontbridge saw those messages and concluded they were spam. I’ve turned that option off, so now my client won’t get those refused messages. Hopefully no one on the list will accidentally use the wrong address to post, because no one will get a warning they tried to do that.


  1. Bart Schaefer says:

    You and Terry Zink need to get together somewhere other than both being included in Justin Mason’s “Planet Antispam” aggregator.

    He’s got a contact page there.

  2. Terry Zink says:


    Frontbridge is Microsoft Exchange Hosted Services, not hosted Exchange servers. It’s basically “service in the cloud.”

    The description you were given about the 88 list is correct. I actually invented that list (don’t let anyone else tell you otherwise), it’s a private internal list that is populated by looking through our IP logs. We look for IPs where 90% of the mail coming from the IP we have marked as spam. Furthermore, there is a minimal number of messages that first has to be attained.

    The process of populating that list is automatic. Nobody proactively searches for IPs looking to add them, we have a process that does this for us, as well as an IP database. However, while the population of the list is automated without human intervention, the delisting process is not. Someone goes over all of the delisting requests.

    If you were to forward your request to our delisting email address with the explanation you had given, you’d have a good chance of being delisted. Chances are the reason you were listed is what you mentioned, so the steps you have taken are likely to prevent you from getting listed again.

  3. Good morning Terry, Thanks for the clarification. It would be very nice if a few sample pieces of spam were retained when an IP is blacklisted. I got lucky because I knew that client well enough to be able to guess what might be considered spam to cause the automated blacklisting.

    How about a notification system? Could the Frontbridge system send out an email to the registered address for the domain in question, or to the postmaster or abuse address whenever the IP gets blacklisted?

  4. Terry Zink says:


    Are you suggesting that every single IP we block, we archive some spam and then notify the domain that the IP belongs to? That sounds like an awful lot of work because we can discover up to 200,000 new IPs per day.

  5. Hi Terry, Hmm, how about sending a notification email to the registered address for the domain you’re processing email for? That would let someone know that they’ve triggered the block system. Include one piece of email that tripped the alarm.

    It might be more work to set up a storage system, but once it’s set up it’s not really new work for a person, just for your computers. Maybe have a one week retention policy, after a week pitch the spam that caused the problem.

  6. Terry Williams says:

    It’s frustrating that I can be clean on every spamcheck I can run across except the one on 88blacklist… but have no way of finding out why I got blocked nor find a centralized way of looking up the information (just being dumped into some generic exchange hosting site.

    It was so shocking in fact that I thought I had an internal exchange smtp relay problem with outgoing email. Usually when you have a problem, you’re on a lot of lists..not just one.

  7. Daniel Sydnes says:

    Our SMTP gateway was nailed by this today.

    Okay, so you run your own internal blacklist. Great! But as a fellow email administrator, please give me SOMETHING to work with.

    How about the ability to query your database via web form (with CAPTCHA if you prefer)? That allows me to manually confirm we are listed and I won’t send you needless delist requests.

    How about displaying a list of “hits” on your spam filter that got us included? Timestamp, client IP address, and SMTP envelope information would be enough. You’ve already got those in your log files, right? That allows me to review my outbound log files, find the offending messages and deal with the problem. Otherwise, how do I know which messages triggered your SPAM filters, since I don’t know what domains you host or all of your SMTP gateway addresses? Furthermore, I host dozens of domains too, so I need to know who on my side to notify.

    How about a sensible threshold before inclusion? For example, our SMTP gateway sends less than 500 messages a day from 40 or so domains. Probably no more than 1-5 messages a week AT MOST to domains that you host. Surely at that level it makes more sense to quarantine our messages into a user’s junk mail folder?

    How about publishing a method of whitelisting? For example, bonded senders, DomainKeys, whatever? Then we know how to play nice using your rules?

    I’m betting that any one of the above suggestions would make both of our jobs far easier.

  8. Andy Artz says:

    As a client who is being blocked by Frontbridge, please let me tell you that it is even worse when I’m stuck in the middle — between Frontbridge refusing to take me off the blacklist and my web host ( that refuses to help any further in the matter (email attached below). Since my email is sent through simplehost, my ISP (Comcast) can’t do anything about this, right? What in the heck am I supposed to do at this point? At least if it were my server, I could try to fix it myself…


    There is not spam being sent from this server. There is nothing we can do if your Isp is blocking our server. This server is not listed with any international spam repositories. You will have to call your Isp, frontbridge to resolve this matter. This is a shared server. We offer autoresponders and other features that frontbridge may define as spam. Thanks.


    David Abrams
    Technical Support Manager

    Ticket Details
    Ticket ID: SDO-278683
    Department: Technical Support
    Priority: Urgent
    Status: Closed

  9. Hi Andy,

    If I’m understanding your situation correctly, your web site is on a server that has lots of different web sites on it. If that’s true, then many web sites are sharing the same IP address. All it takes is one of those sites to start sending out spam (or mail that Frontbridge sees as spam) to someone that uses Frontbridge’s services. Then poof! all of those sites on that server are prevented from sending mail to any of Frontbridge’s customers. You’re right, there’s not much you can do about this, since you can’t tell Frontbridge that the problem has been addressed. Realistically, your only solution is to move your web site to a different host. Good luck, Mike

  10. David Styles says:

    One of our clients are having the exact same problem but send only very limited amounts of mail. They are not listed on any other RBL but somehow keep managing to get caught out on this one half way through a mail exchange with an existing client.

    I would be grateful if someone could give me some tips on what to look for to help us avoid being relisted, my client is a small company who as far as i’m aware don’t do ANY unsolicited mailings, I am at a loss when trying to explain to them why their exchange server particularly is being blocked.

  11. Gary Harris says:

    Are you suggesting that every single IP we block, we archive some spam and then notify the domain that the IP belongs to? That sounds like an awful lot of work because we can discover up to 200,000 new IPs per day.

    YES EXACTLY, Spamcop can send notices, spews can, almost everyone else can but YOU can’t? Blacklist88 is useless as a spam tool because of this.

    Also spamcop is pretty good at NOT marking forwarded and aliased mails as spam, and only going after the TRUE source, why is this so hard for you? (and AOL) if you can’t create a good working antispam list that informs admins that their servers have been tagged and WHY then don’t create a list at all, the only worse than no spam blocking at all is worthless spam blocking that blocks people with no warning whatsoever.

  12. Tim Tielens says:

    We had the same problem last month with 88.blacklist.zap

    It came out of nowhere “poof” blacklisted, so we tried sending to bigfish and

    A few days passed and we finally got delisted…
    2 weeks after that we got blacklisted AGAIN !!!
    We host our own mailserver , we dont have open relay , we don’t send spam !!
    I searched every blacklist and we aren’t on any !!
    So the ONLY option was to mail to bigfish and bla bla bla again asking for a delist.

    They refused , they claimed 90% of our mail was spam .. so i asked for proof.
    Until today i haven’t received a single piece of proof that did send spam during that time!!

    Nice going ..

    The next step i took was calling microsoft ,who didn’t even know what frontbridge was.
    So after sending tons of email request to get of the list they finally answered that we didn’t send spam for 1 day and we got removed .

    NOW my question is , WE DIDN’T CHANGE ANYTHING , so how the f*ck could we send spam before …

    I suggest you get your things straight before someone files a lawsuit against frontbridge !

  13. Tim Tielens says:

    or maybe you could share your definition of spam…

  14. benny says:


    Can I know what happens when you are trying to send a mail while you are blacklisted ?

    Does Sendmail tell you that the User is unknown ?

    Thank you very and hopefully this blacklist won’t block my IP again 😉

    Regards, Benny.

  15. Neal Stephen says:

    Hi. I am the IT administrator in a charity in Australia and need to point out a few things here.
    The issue of 90% spam seesm to based more on built in spam filters in common mail programs rather than those hosted by Frontbridge. As a small charity with no international connection it is unlikely that our staff would be talking to companies hosted by Frontbridge in any capacity. But we are blacklisted.
    A simple check would indicate that if the servers of the recipient list you as spam, then somehow the connection goes back to this 88blacklist.
    An example, we have an enewsletter we send to members and subscribers. Some of these will end up in individual spam filters even though they have been requested by the recipient (people you do business with), and as not everyone is tech savvy, it probably will go to spam every time. There does not seem to be anyway of fixing it or stopping it. Everybody in the world with some kind of spam filter ends up being connected even though they don’t know it. It seems a good way of ridding us of the spam problem, but it seems that more and more legitimate businesses are being cough tup in this. i will delist and now I know how it works, expect to be listed again fairly soon.
    Stupid way of doing business. Business managers and Administrators shoudl be the people to come up with these policies, not programmers.
    From a business point of view this is very bad, and I agree with an earlier comment that this will end in a law suit of some kind.

  16. Like a lot of people here we host our own email server, we have no open relays don’t send SPAM, don’t send large amounts of emails, yet we are on the list.
    This list and the process of getting IP addresses blocked is simply wrong.

    As a result of this process one service leaver will not be getting a job with us.

    The list should be updated to allow processes as above to happen or should be removed in favour something that works!

  17. Patrick Frontéri says:

    Since it is a Microsoft Exchange Hosted Services, maybe it’s configured to blacklist anyone not running Exchange??

    (Btw: ‘Ex’ = the past, ‘Change’ = for the future, go GroupWiseR)

  18. Trevor says:

    “Like a lot of people here we host our own email server, we have no open relays don’t send SPAM, don’t send large amounts of emails, yet we are on the list.
    This list and the process of getting IP addresses blocked is simply wrong.”

    We have got blacklisted today. We have about 10 domains on our server and send fewer than 20 emails a day – none of which is spam (but there is nothing to stop users automatically forwarding emails that might be spam I suppose). I cannot understand how any right-thinking spam filter would have decided that 90%(!) was spam!

  19. skdd says:

    Ad [17]
    no it’s not possible, because we have our exchange server and we are on that list. Don’t know why, the only reason can be, that we are sending NDR.
    And its little bit strange, because we use Zyxel’s zywall device with AV/Spam control on both sides (in/out) and no open relay.
    All clients are patched, with AV support from Symantec and whole site was completely down for 12+ hours because of problems with electricity in site area.

  20. Gabriele says:

    Unfortunatly not, Patrck.
    We use Exchange but we are blacklisted and I still don’t know how to unlist.

  21. r smith says:

    I have filed an Unfair Trade Practices complaint at the FTC against Microsoft and Frontbridge. Additionally, I have asked Microsoft for the information they have collected about my IP address pursuant to their posted privacy policy.

    The blacklist only affects incoming mail and not outgoing mail. So someone sent me a message and when i try to respond I was blocked. If there was to be blocking at all it should be blocked outgoing as well and the sender should be notified. In my case someone sent me e-mail and now I cannot respond so the person thinks I am just not responding.

  22. Jean says:

    I am in the same boat, we host our own mail, this has happened more than once. We do not send spam. I am merely trying to reply to emails that come to me and they are blocked. it is a good client, so this is extremely aggravating….Is my site actually doing something wrong??? If so, what?????? We use Exchange?? Should we just change IP addresses???????? HELP

  23. Mike Dodge says:

    Question: I sent a nasty email to someone I was upset at and I found that a few days later I was unable to log into my email account at all. I did an email check and found out he completely blocked my IP from emailing him. The message said he used the 87.blacklist.zap I’m a little worried that the guy may have my IP. Was it possible for him to do it without seeing my IP? Your post says that it’s automatic but my emails didn’t raise any spam red flags. I sent it to his work email. Thanks!

  24. @Mike Dodge: Any time you send an email, the recipient will get the IP address of the email server you’re using. And that server apparently is on some sort of public blacklist, leading to the blocking at 87.blacklist.zap, which is entirely different from 88.blacklist.zap. 87 appears to be related to public blacklists, like the CBL, and 88 is a behind the scenes blocklist with no documentation on how an IP address gets listed.

    I would guess you not being able to log into your account at all is a different issue from your mail server being listed on a blocklist.

  25. Mike Dodge says:

    Does that mean that he manually entered my IP onto the blacklist? I can’t email anyone else at his entire company either.

  26. r smith says:

    I am proceeding with the complaint about this. A TRUSTe Watchdog complaint has been filed as Frontbridge is bound by the posted Microsoft privacy policy. If they collect information about my IP, they say they will give it to me upon request. they seem to have changed their minds.

    Next is Net Neutrality. They cannot disrupt network traffic in an unreasonable manner without violating the net neutrality principles. See for info on that. Most of the cases involved broadband but this a new area.

  27. I own a computer services company, I run a Microsoft SBS 2003 Server, and I use no-ip mail relay to forward my domain’s incoming mail to Exchange. I have a SonicWall blocking all incoming SMTP traffic other than from no-ip’s mail servers. Furthermore, my office staff does not have accounts, nor do they have access to my devices (laptop and two smartphones) to use my account. Yet somehow, out of the blue, when I emailed a new customer last week from one of the phones, they never got the email (it just seemed to never exist outside of my sent items). Earlier this week, I attempted to email a customer who I haven’t emailed in over 6 months, and got a message that I was blacklisted. Upon checking, I could find neither my IP nor my domain name in any blacklists anywhere else. I did a google search and came upon this forum, and see that there are many others in the boat with me.
    I, too, would love to know how in God’s name I have come to be on this blacklist, considering the fact that I have NEVER sent any email to any FrontBridge customers prior to last week. That would be a priceless explanation to have.
    The only possible way I can see it happening is if somebody was assanine to do domain name based spam listing, which would mean that any moron spoofing addresses can burn any of us when the domain name is resolved to the mail server IP, and the IP is then blacklisted!
    And if that is the case, maybe we should start spoofing a address and spam the hell out of them (you know – send 2 or 3 messages with vulgar language) so their system blacklists themselves and can’t talk to their own customers!
    Perhaps the best way to resolve this issue is to contact their customers who we are unable to reach, and have all of them start beating on FrontBridge. When they are having a few thousand dollars worth of customers raising hell with them, I’m sure their 88.blacklist will, at the least, get some much needed modification!

  28. Aaron says:

    I have a sbs2003 running exchange. Full Trend Micro client/server AV, firebox router. One user downloaded a virus from their email that was very obviously the hoax UPS email. That got us on the XBL/CBL list quick, now I come to learn that we are on the 88frontbridge list after 5 days. 2 days after being delisted from XBL/CBL. I’ve sent a delist to them, hoping I’ll see some improvment soon…

  29. PC says:

    This past Sunday I changed my employer over to a brand new Exchange mail-server and a new ISP with dual T-3’s. Monday morning at 9:15am I get a forward from a coworker with the message that we are blacklisted by88.blacklist. I check the server and we have sent 6 emails through this new server and we are already blacklisted!!! All 6 messages are legit and to clients that we work so closely with they are whitelisted on our Barracuda.
    I have emailed asking to be removed but still no response and we are still getting emails that we are blocked. Is this something the BBB could handle?

  30. Gabriel says:

    Hey guess what, I’m in the same boat as the vast majority of people here. My Lawfirm is getting blocked by these clowns, after 2 delistings. We have a single client who cannot receive mail, and now its interrupting receipts of electronic payments. The kicker is, we have been sending mail to and from this client for years, and only within the last 2 months have we had this problem.

    Since we are on no other blacklists, do not have an open relay, do not spam, and are simply attempting to exchange information I’d say frontbridge is at fault here. I’m pretty sure the attorneys at my firm will have be more than overjoyed to file suit against frontbridge and retrieve damages from lost billable hours.

  31. Gary says:

    Please please please file a big lawsuit, feel free to make it class action and I’d be happy to add my own affidavit and I’d bet I’m not the only one willing to add fuel to this bonfire.

  32. Aaron says:

    I delisted on Friday 8/1/08 , I didn’t get an email about my IP being taken off until today, 8/6/08. It came with a nice little letter of explanation. I sure they really care that much.

  33. Dan V says:

    I have requested delisting now 3 times from the frontbridge – a client – non-profit – was on the 87.blacklist.zap. the domain does not show up on any other CBL or other blacklist – but I repeatedly get added to 87.blacklist.zap.

    How can I finally get off of this?

    I have exchange 2003, no relay – my firewall allows sMTP from the exchange server only; we have filters on inbound and outbound email.

    this is extremely frustrating and is costing my client a lot of money for my time. they are considering action legally against the institution running this list.

    it is costing them donations and other support as well.

  34. Andy Artz says:


    After being delisted at least 3 times already, I’m blocked again and it sucks. If you do a class action suit, count me in.

    (Why can’t Frontbridge just whitelist me permanently???)


  35. After reading through all the discussions on 88.blacklist.zap I am feeling better. I thought I had done something wrong!

    I have been blacklisted from my #1 client and have requested to be delisted twice. I contacted my client who is very apologectic and is trying to get us removed. The company that hosts our website is trying to do the same. I have contacted Frontbridge/Microsoft and they say that they are just resellers of the product. Not much help! I am in the middle of a major project and cannot exchange information that my client needs NOW! Funny thing…my husband works for the company and I can’t even email him!

    Class Action – count me in. These people are taking it upon themselves to hinder/ruin legitimate businesses from making a living.


  36. Having been blocked by this blacklist, I tried to notify the abuse address at the domain hosted by Frontbridge that we could not get email through to them.

    The mail bounced saying the abuse address did not exist, which violates RFC 2142.

    I would suggest the admins at Frontbridge please go on an Email 101 course before trying to host mailservers on behalf of anybody else, never mind attempting the creation of a blacklist.

  37. Joe says:

    My company just got thrown on this blacklist. Like most others complaining, we run our own spam free mail server. Worst part of all this is that we’re getting blocked from some of our biggest clients which is not very good when you’re in the manufacturing business.

    These ppl need to fix this crap. It’s unacceptable.

  38. Steve says:

    Well, I guess I joined the right party. I run my own personal mail server (Exchange 2003) at my house and my company. I just tried to send my brother an E-mail and all of a sudden I am blacklisted by 88.blacklist.zap as well. I send so little personal E-mail that its not funny. I subscribe to for all the mail servers I manage and get proactive notifications if anything goes wrong. This particular blacklist absolutely sucks and I have half a mind to blacklist anything coming from frontbridge and tell them they can send me a US certified snail mail request to whitelist them and I promise to respond within the next few years.

    If a class action suit is brewing, I’m all in!

  39. Steve says:

    Hey, has anyone read the auto response from Apparently, they don’t know English very well! Check out the part, “…one of agents will get respond to you…”. What the heck is this???

    Hello Steve,

    Thank you for your delisting request (-removed-). Your information has been forwarded to our Abuse Team, who will investigate and remove your IP address from our blocklist. If for any reason we are not able to remove your IP address from our blocklist, one of agents will get respond to you. If you do not hear anything from us within 24 hours, you should be able to send email through our network.

    Thank you,

    Technical Support

  40. […] with you to clean it up.  Who knows if they will do it in a few hours, days, weeks or never.  Further reading on the Internet shows that I am not alone in this […]

  41. Thomas Brixtofte says:

    Just got blacklisted by these clowns. After reading all of the above, it sure sound’s like we are all in the same boat.
    I have checked with every other major spamfilters, and no one of them have us listed. Only the Frontbridge clowns seems to think we are sending spam.

    We have mailed Frontbridge at least three times over the last 3 days, asking to be delisted – but no answer..!

    Does anyone know how to get through to these jerks??

  42. Marc Barash says:

    My client has been trying to send a frontbridge hosted site for two days and there email keeps getting bounced. First frontbridge told us we were blacklisted by 87.blacklist.zap and we should check the other blacklisted services. Well needless to say we checked and we were removed on 8/11, three days ago.

    My client again tried to send yesterday and today and again being bounced only this time the list is 88.blacklist.zap. We got an automated email from (we sent in at 8:00 am in the morning) that we were not on their list and we should check elsewhere.

    We tracked down that 85-88.blacklist.zap is frontbridge’s own internal spam database and we called at 5:00 pm. We were then told that yes we were in their que, but no telling how long this would take.

    The person I spoke with was very clear and courteous,but in the end, could not help only to tell me it could take 24 hours. I asked him why 24 hours when all others delisted us 3 days prior?

    My client is upset, and wanting to know what else I can do. I have advised the client that there is nothing we can do on our side as fronthost is blocking us and they have to remove us.

    My clients are lawfirms. Would anyone be interested in a class action lawsuit?

  43. Fred Martin says:

    Terry – I wouldnt go around bragging that I invented this list or system. It is Junk. I have a corporate email server that it is blacklisting. We own the IP and no replays. Checked with over 120 RBL services and not listed on any of them. Was sending email today to some friends and it was working fine all morning. Suddenly, this afternoon got a bounce back…

    What a joke of service.

  44. Christian Huldt says:

    Quite simply, forward the mail that trigger inclusion into the list to the appropriate abuse address.
    If the list is updated from logs in real time, you will have to save a copy of one spam/IP which can be much, but I don’t see any other way of being a nice netizen.

  45. Karolos Chanikian says:

    90% ? What 90%? I just sent my FIRST e-mail to a Frontbridge server and got bounced back because of 88.blacklist.zap. Even if I do request a removal, who can guarantee that I’ll get removed from a system that creates a trend out of ONE SINGLE unit!

  46. Juan Daniel Serrano says:

    This 88.blacklist.zap is blocking me, and I can’t send emails to one of our biggest customers. Been having to forward all corporate mail through a gmail account I created only for this purpose. Can’t send emails to addresses either!

  47. Cynthia Kondratieff says:

    Wow, now I understand why non-techie me and our small consulting business has had such a problem.

    Last night I sent 2 emails to a client [1 minute apart] – the first one [with a 5MB attachment] got through. The second one [with a 3MB attachment] was blacklisted.

    We get delisted only to get relisted.

    The good news is, thanks to all you folks who’ve written on this journal page, and documented that the problem is FrontBridge, our clients who were using their technology are replacing it. 🙂

  48. Lawrence Sheed says:

    Never heard of this blacklist until one of my clients sent me a bounce message from it, googled it, and found you as the first link!

    Hopefully my experience is better than most of yours.

    Could be worse – we see a lot of arbitrary blocking by different providers here, with almost no way of getting in contact with them. At least in this case they have a delist mechanism, albeit without the crucial what caused the listing…

    Wonder what the NANOG people think about all this..

  49. Catherine says:

    We are also having this same problem, I sent a mail asking to be de-listed but was also refused as ‘apparently’ we were sending 90% spam – which is utter nonsense !!! This is having a detrimental affect on our business as our customers cannot contact us, and it also makes us appear suspect to customer who try to contact us when they get a bounceback email!! Has anyone found a resolution yet !??

  50. Cynthia Kondratieff says:

    Chapter 2 in our search for a solution – we think we’ve found it [for us].
    1. FrontBridge, via Brent, a Tier 2 Technical Support person, sent us an actual sample of the spam emails.
    2. This allowed us to figure out that an _old_ [we thought inactive] company email address [which our employee had aliased to her FrontBridge-protected account] was forwarding spam.
    3. We disabled that old email account, and asked to be delisted again.

    I’m posting this in case this situation could be a problem for anyone else – and for the fact that FrontBridge actually _did_ supply us with a sample of the email messages, something we hadn’t been able to obtain before.

    If I find out anything else helpful – or Chapter 3 occurs – I will post again.

    Good luck all.